yamaha raptor 250r

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Music History: Rhythm and Blues

Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences, first performed by African American artists. The term was coined as a musical marketing term in the United States in 1947 by Jerry Wexler at Billboard[1] It replaced the term race music (which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the more positive postwar world[2]) and the Billboard category Harlem Hit Parade in June 1949. The term was initially used to identify the rocking style of music that combined the 12 bar blues format and boogie-woogie with a back beat, which later became a fundamental element of rock and roll. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing blackBlues and Rhythm. The words were reversed by Wexler of Atlantic Records, the leading label in the R&B field in the early years.[1] magazine. music under the name

In Rock & Roll: An Unruly History (1995) Robert Palmer defines "Rhythm & Blues" as a catchall rubric used to refer to any music that was made by and for black Americans. In his 1981Deep Blues Palmer used "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm and blues was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience, which embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. book

By the 1970s, rhythm and blues was being used as a blanket term to describe soul and funk. Today the acronym R&B is almost always used instead of the full rhythm and blues, and mainstream use of the term refers to a modern version of soul and funk-influenced pop music that originated as disco became less favorable.


In its first manifestation, rhythm and blues was one of the predecessors to rock and roll. It was strongly influenced by jazz, jump blues and black gospel music. It also influenced jazz in return. Rhythm and blues, blues, and gospel combined with bebop to create hard bop.

Several musicians recorded both jazz and rhythm and blues, such as the swing bands of Jay McShann, Tiny Bradshaw and Johnny Otis. Count Basie had a weekly live rhythm and blues broadcast from Harlem. Bebop icon Tadd Dameron arranged music for Bull Moose Jackson and spent two years as Jackson's pianist after establishing himself in bebop.

Most of the R&B studio musicians were jazz musicians, and many of the musicians on Charlie Mingus' breakthrough jazz recordings were R&B veterans. Lionel Hampton's big band of the early 1940s — which produced the classic recording Flying Home (tenor sax solo by Illinois Jacquet) — was the breeding ground for many of the bebop legends of the 1950s. Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson was a bebop saxophonist and a blues shouter.

The 1950s was the premier decade for classic rhythm and blues. Overlapping with other genres such as jazz and rock and roll, R&B developed regional variations. A strong, distinct style straddling the border with blues came out of New Orleans, and was based on a rolling piano style first made famous by Professor Longhair. In the late 1950s, Fats Domino hit the national charts with "Blueberry Hill" and "Ain't That a Shame". Other artists who popularized this LouisianaClarence "Frogman" Henry, Frankie Ford, Irma Thomas, The Neville Brothers and Dr. John. flavor of R&B included

The first rock and roll hits consisted of rhythm and blues songs like "Rocket 88" and "Shake, Rattle and Roll", which appeared on popular music charts as well as R&B charts. "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On", the first hit by Jerry Lee Lewis, was an R&B cover song that reached number one on the pop, R&B and country and western charts.

By the early 1960s, rhythm and blues had taken on more gospel-influenced elements, as pioneered by artists such as Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, and James Brown, Aretha Franklin and was given the name soul music. Barry Pearson has written that this was "a name imposed on the industry by the black community. A little more than a decade later, however, "rhythm and blues made a comeback."[2] The early and middle 1960s saw an uprise of young white bands whose music was labelled rhythm and blues (and sometimes blue-eyed soul) — such as The Yardbirds, The Rolling Stones, The Pretty Things, The Small Faces, The Animals, The Spencer Davis Group and The Who.